After the uprisings of the Arab Spring that forced Hosni Mubarak from power in Egypt, a constituent assembly drafted a constitutional text to replace the 1971 Constitution. The constituent assembly approved this new constitutional text in November 2012, and following approval at popular referendum in December 2012, the 2012 Constitution went into effect on 26 December 2012.
When Mohamed Morsi was forced from the presidency in July 2013, an interim government was appointed and the 2012 Constitution suspended. A committee of ten experts was appointed to propose amendments to the 2012 Constitution. During July 2013, Constitutional Transitions and the West Asia and North Africa branch of International IDEA prepared an opinion offers analysis of the provisions of the 2012 Constitution regarding the horizontal distribution of powers between the legislature, president and prime minister.